There are three main types of hearing losses – conductive, sensorineural and mixed.
Conductive Hearing Loss –This type of hearing loss occurs when there is a problem with the outer or middle ear (ear canal, eardrum, and the three bones).
• Malformation of the outer and middle ear structures. These could be hereditary in nature or can occur during a major accident.
• Accumulation of fluid in the ear canal during colds.
• Ear infections like otitis media, in which the infection causes accumulation of fluid in the middle ear .
• A perforated eardrum
• Certain allergies
• Benign tumors in the ear
• Impacted earwax in the canal obstructing the passage of sound
• Infection of the ear canal
• Presence of foreign body in the ear canal
Sensorineural Hearing Loss –Sensorineural hearing loss can occur due to damage to the nerves in the inner ear or due to damage to the cochlea. It cannot be reversed or treated.Noise induced hearing loss is caused due to exposure to high intensity noise which causes permanent nerve damage.
• Before or during birth
• Lack of oxygen at the time of birth
• Infections such as rubella, herpes, toxoplasmosis, syphilis, cytomegalovirus (CMV)
• Later Onset
• Bacterial meningitis
• Drug-induced ototoxicity
• Intense noise
• Physical damage to the head or the ear.
Mixed – Some people have problems associated with both the inner and outer or middle ear. Such a type of hearing loss is called mixed type.